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AL-ZAHF AL-AKHDAR the first newspaper in the history of the Arab and international press not owned by an individual, government or any tools of exploitation; the ideological weekly journal of the Revolutionary Committees, supporting the cause of freedom everywhere and fighting exploitation of the masses.

English language edition available every week. Order your copy from your newsagent or bookshop.

amahiriya review

No 34 March 1983

L] REAGAN’S THREAT: The United States has renewed its provocations against the Libyan Jamahiriya, with AWACs and the aircraft carrier Nimitz sent to the edges of Libyan territory in the latest bid by the United States to destabilise Libya. An editorial comment appears on page 4, and the reactions of the Libyan leader Muammer Qadhafi are reported on page 9.

_] PEOPLE’S DEMOCRACY: The 1983 session of the General People’s Congress has been meeting

in Tripoli, the Libyan capital. Members of Congress were faced with the difficult task of deciding development priorities against the background of the growing world economic crisis and uncertainty over oil price levels. Louis Eaks provides a three page report which starts on page 8.

_] ARAB OPPOSITION: Libya was the recent venue for a conference of Arab opposition parties and organisations, at which they heard the Libyan leader Muammer Qadhafi review the problems facing the Arab nation. In particular, he warned of the dangers posed by the United States and Israel, and the urgency with which the Arabs must mobilise their defence potential. A special review of the Libyan leader’s speech starts on page 11.

_] PEACE AND DISARMAMENT: Libya’s commitment to nuclear disarmament was firmly underlined by Muammer Qadhafi in a series of speeches during his recent visits to Bulgaria and Romania. A report begins on page 13, which also examines the trade and political agreements reached between the countries.

_] HIDDEN TRUTH: Libya continues to be subjected to hostile reporting by the international media. However, two recent reports from Reuters news agency provide a much different picture of modern Libya to those given by the American controlled media. On page 15, Alan George examines what Reuters had to say.

L] ENERGY SEMINAR: Experts in alternative energy sources recently held a four day seminar in Tripoli. A special correspondent looks at their recommendations on page 17.


Subversion and Interference: Who is Gulity? .....................5. 4 PANORAMA NEWS REVIEW

USGS (PSs DTEEE TN Ce hes en od ta cecwenanussaindasoeravede nis 5 British Minister signs co-operation agreement in Tripoli ........ 5 Call for Arab-Iranian alliance ..... pu Ucdin ne S aie Sad ie 8h aS pe hain te 5 SOGRI IL CCIRINE TE ROS PRUE ooo 52 ki bisa bce sic nes doseedewentane 5 US breakfast TV told ‘relations will improve’ ....................... 6 Unique examples amongst archaeological discoveries ............ 6 Libya’s concern for the disabled ‘sets example’ .................... 6 Support for Sri Lanka’s welfare programme .......................5. 6 CAUTEAIE Is PRRSUEUT. 157 PAURUBIS viccilcederecavacsacaies sd laddcestisatbckets 7 Israel sees Zaire as ‘open door to Africa’ .....................00e eee 7 International symposium on Green Book .....................00000005 7 LIBYAN NEWS

Economic issues dominate Tripoli Congress ........................ 8 Eee TEN Pat IT TINE 252 Fs sed excernorges Babe ar aexeaahuee ins 9 Proposed 1983 Development Budget ......................0..0ee eee: 10 ARAB HOMELAND

Critical situation Tacina the Aran nation xcs cdivcasvexeadeeccrccavsss 11 SPECIAL REPORT

Disarmament and peace are Libya’s priorities ................. Seas Le Muammer Qadhafi’s tour of Bulgaria and Romania .......... Sie ch Trade and economic agreements signed .....................0000005 16 MEDIA

ERVES PUCLCnee ry EUEHENY RUNTIME 5 255 ses ecw cals vecedacseade isaekeeesess 15 ENERGY SEMINAR

PEE PIE GiTe PUG TING cc rskasckscitcasceseteie ckckcdanades daa 17 TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

PU WCISNG ORTON NEB RMON os 8 oa ee tas eae eal 5 Se 18 OCR AANE Te CITT EE SUIS ase Gyscacandees ive anb ae be els dadarweeant’s 18 CZECNOSIOVAKIAN SIRE) GOMIPAEL noc noes celilsccecarsyocessea vvenuouuls 18 INE OURS RSE os coc dtcc ca dsonasnantd cadaacadcka sop nen deuauneeeieses 19 MaraOOll DTOIGCE DPESSES AMES Joisiinrcceesenscescecausuxiniesesseecs 19 Sugar project reviewed in Addis Ababa ............................. 19 Sulphate-resistant cement production starts .....................5. 19

Published by Jamahiriya Review, 13A Hillgate Street, London W8 7SP. Telephone: 01-727 3131. Telex: 829830 Event G. Printed by W F Aldridge & Company Limited, London SW16 6NW. We acknowledge the co-operation of JANA, the Jamahiriya News Agency, in providing its daily news bulletin.

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IF THE objectives of Washington’s policy towards Libya were not such a serious threat to the Jamahiriya’s independence, the latest American campaign against Libya has all the elements of farce. In mid-February an aircraft carrier was despatched towards Libyan waters in the Gulf of Sirte, and AWACs sent

half-way round the world as evidence of the United States’.

seriousness in its claim that Libya was massing troops and aircraft along the Sudanese border in the prelude to a Libyan engineered coup d'etat against General Numeiri.

Washington declares it has evidence that Libya is massing troops and equipment in the south for an imminent strike against Khartoum. Meanwhile, the Egyptian Chief of Staff declares there is no evidence of any such moves by the Libyans, and only two days before a senior West European diplomat assured an Italian journalist in Tripoli, the Libyan capital, that the Jama- hiriya was not involved ‘in any foreign adventures’, adding that there was no evidence to suggest any were planned.

In Tripoli, the Libyan leader not only denied that the Jamahiriya had embarked on such a scheme, but a communique from the Libyan Armed Forces stressed that Libya does not even possess any planes with the capability and range to embark on a bombing raid on Khartoum, which the Americans claimed was Libya’s plan.

To emphasise Libya’s innocence, Muammer Qadhafi proposed that the Security Council should send a delegation to the area to see for themselves, and the world, the fact that Libya is innocent of Washington’s allegations.

Many question marks hover over almost every aspect of the incident, and many questions may never be clearly answered. Nevertheless, one thing is certain: the whole American propaganda

campaign, and the supporting US military action, is based on-

fraudulent claims and the routine lies which characterise America’s presentation of the Jamahiriya and Libya’s foreign policy.

What really provoked America’s latest military adventurism and the reasons for its timing is difficult to determine. Is Reagan (whose films include ‘Accidents Will Happen’, ‘Desperate Journey’, ‘Hellcats of the Navy’, and ‘The Killers’) irritated with Libya’s growing rapprochement with Western Europe, or is he angered with the clear call coming from the Libyan leader Muammer Qadhafi on the question of nuclear disarmament in Europe, and feels it necessary to make a new bid to isolate the Jamahiriya from international opinion? Or was the whole episode engineered to fly US troops into the area in an attempt not to intimidate Libya but the mass movement of opposition to the regime of General Numeiri in the Sudan? Or was it a hasty move to provide a smokescreen for Israel’s efforts to consolidate its military occupation of the Lebanon?

Whatver the reasons, it little behoves the President of the United States to accuse Libya of interference in the affairs of other countries, and of conducting a campaign of subversion against regimes in the region in an attempt to threaten their independence. What regime is there in the region apart from the Jamahiriya which is independent from Washington’s influence?



Subversion and interference: Who is Guilty?

Egypt is firmly under American and Israeli control, and on their behalf Cairo’s forces are used to prop up General Numeiri’s regime. In alliance, the US, Egypt and Sudan are all involved in assisting the fanatical regime of Hissene Habre which, with their help, overthrew the OAU recognised regime of Goukouni Oueddei in Chad.

While Reagan makes his wild accusations against the Jama- hiriya, attention is diverted from a circle of conspiracy in the region, of which Libya is the target, not the culprit. In January General Mubarak, the Egyptian President, flew to Washington for talks with Reagan and US leaders to co-ordinate policy in the Middle East. On 14th February, three days before the news broke of the American provocations in the area, Mubarak was in Aswan for talks with General Numeiri. In the previous week, General Vernon Walters, a Reagan envoy with CIA connections, was in Khartoum and US Assistant Secretary of Defence Francis West was in Cairo. Meanwhile, Numeiri and Habre held talks in the Sudanese capital.

Moreover, envoys of Chad’s Habre recently visited Zaire for

talks with the Zionist Defence Minister, and Butcher of Sabra and Shatila, to discuss Israeli military assistance to the Habre

regime. Sharon is known to have visited the Egyptian-Libyan

border area in the past to review plans for a military strike against the Jamahiriya. No doubt soon he, or his successor as Defence Minister, will be patrolling Libya’s southern border.

Hence, while an increasingly pathetic international press repeats Reagan’s ludicrous claims against Libya like a record with the needle stuck, an arc of aggression is being forged on the Jamahiriya’s eastern and southern borders, while the US fleet manoeuvres in the Mediterranean off the northern coastline. The strategy of encircling the Jamahiriya, planned by Alexander Haig when Secretary of State, moves on a stage further while the press is looking for Libyan troops in the desert with about as much chance of success as they had in tracking down the non- existent Libyan hit-squads which the CIA assured the world were hot on the trail of Reagan last year.

Muammer Qadhafi made a pertinent observation when he addressed the General People’s Congress in Tripoli on 17th February. He reminded the Libyan people that it was America which had come to Libya’s shore with threats and provocations, rather than the other way round.

Of course, one thing is certain. These American provocations will continue. Washington is determined to crush the progressive stand taken by revolutionary Libya against American and Zionist policy in the region. With other Arab regimes eager to prostrate themselves before the American President, and hail his so-called peace plan, Libya and its revolutionary leader Muammer Qadhafi reject any sell-out of Arab rights in Palestine and the surrender to Zionist-American supremacy in the Arab homeland which the Reagan plan seeks to secure. It is the duty of all people who seek peace and justice in the world to support Libya’s stand, and to condemn Washington’s dangerous war games in the Middle East.

A monthly review of Libyan, Islamic


Kreisky: ‘it Is better to talk’

THE AUSTRIAN Chancellor has chided the American President Ronald Reagan over his _ hostile stance towards the Jamahiriya. Dr Bruno Kreisky’s remarks, published in Time magazine (14th February), came on the eve of his arrival in Washington for talks with American leaders. The magazine pointed out the differences in foreign policy between the two leaders, and mentioned the fact that Kreisky last year hosted a visit to Austria by Muammer Qadhafi.

Dr Kreisky told Time: *‘Ameri- cans like to do business with Libya, but they say, ““Mr Qadhafi, we don’t want to say hello to you’. I had an opportunity to deal with Qadhafi, and I could reach some solutions. It is much better to be on speaking terms with someone than not to be

British Minister signs co-operation agreement in Tripoli

A ONE week visit to the Jama- hiriya by Britain’s Minister of State for Health, Mr Kenneth Clark ended on 6th February with the initialling of a wide-ranging agree- ment on health and welfare, aimed at increasing co-operation between Britain and Libya.

A joint project for the con- struction and equipping of two 1,200 bed hospitals for Tripoli and Benghazi, was one of the subjects discussed by Mr Clark during talks with Libya’s Social Security Secre- tary, and which suggests that 1983 could see a development of trading links between the two countries.

Mr Clark had arrived in Tripoli on 30th January and, according to the Jamahiriya News Agency, JANA, he said that his visit was designed to bolster co-operation between the Libyan Arab and British peoples, especially in the field of health.

During his stay, the British Minister held. talks with the Secre- taries of Health, Social Security, Education and Heavy Industry.

Medical education, develop- ment of medical curricula, and the exchange of expertise in scientific specialisations and training of Libyan students were amongst the items reviewed during a meeting

between Mr Clark and the Jama- hiriya’s Health Secretary. The 31st January meeting also dealt with the development of co-operation between Libya and British universities in the medical fields.

In his talks with Libya’s Social Security Secretary, Mr Clark dis- cussed pharmaceuticals and medica! equipment, as well as medical projects and the exchange of exper- tise in higher medical specialisations.

During his stay, Mr Clark was given the opportunity to see some of the facilities now available in the medical field to the Jamahiriya’s citizens, and which offer examples of the achievements of the Revo- lution’s development programme.

These included the Dhamani Health Complex in Tripoli, and the Rehabilitation Centre for the Handi- capped in Zanzour, where he toured the various departments, which include a diagnosis clinic, physio- therapy clinic, guidance and social and psychiatric services, in addition to. sports grounds and facilities for cultural activities and social entertain- ment. Mr Clark also visited Tripoli’s new hospital at Sidi Misry, and the College of Medicine at the Al Fateh University.

The British Minister was also given the opportunity to tour the ancient ruins of the Roman City at Leptis Magna (Libda) on the Medi- terranean coast east of Tripoli.

The agreement initialled by Mr Clark and Health Secretary Dr Murad Landi, calls for co-operation in medicines, medical equipment, the implementation of health projects, bilateral contacts on food safety and consultations with regard to the comprehensive health programme and other related projects in the Jamahiriya.


It also provides for co-operation in health manpower and medical teaching and training of graduate doctors, technicians and nursing staff. An exchange of expertise is proposed in high health education through direct contacts between both countries and the develop- ment of scientific research in medicine in Libya.

Call for Arab-Iranian alliance

AMERICAN HOPES that Syria might be forced into backing Iraq’s war against Iran, and supporting President Reagan’s proposals for a settlement to the Palestine question, received a severe upset in late Janu- ary. A joint communique issued jointly by Syria, Iran and Libya made clear that American policy in the region, including Washington’s support for Iraq’s invasion of Iran, was totally unacceptable to the three countries.

Western observers saw the com- munique, which followed two days of talks between the Syrian and Iranian Foreign Ministers and the Jamahiriya’s Secretary of Justice, as a major set-back for US strategy in the region.

Issued simultaneously in Tripoli, Damascus and Tehran on 23rd January, the communique pledged support for Lebanese resistance to the Israeli occupation forces, and condemned any moves to bring Arab governments into the Camp David process. Moreover, they deplored efforts to return Egypt to the ranks of the Arab League a


move which Iraq and other Arab states have been urging.

The three parties expressed full backing for the PLO in its struggle to restore the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people, and condemned Arab pressures on the PLO to abandon its role as representative of the Palestinians to Jordan’s King Hussein

Arab regimes are concerned by the strength of the alliance which is campaigning against any US mili- tary presence in the region, and posing direct opposition to current American strategy. The communi- que stressed that Iran’s place was with progressive Arabs, and called for Tehran to be admitted to the ranks of the Steadfastness Front, the grouping of Arab states, inclu- ding the PLO, which opposes partial settlements and any com- promise on the legitimate rights of the Palestinians.

America had been confident that financial pressures could be exerted on Damascus by Washington’s allies amongst the Arab oil producing states to force Syria into switching its allegiance to Iraq. The tripartite talks and subsequent communique make clear that Syria will not lightly abandon its stand.

Security Council adopts Arabic

ARABIC BECAME one of the official languages within the UN this year. There was similar accep- tance in the General Assembly and UN agencies some years ago, follow- ing pressure from the Jamahiriya, which sought to secure greater >


> recognition for Arabic as a major world language. Shortly after the 1969 Revolution, Libya required all foreign passports to include details of the bearer in Arabic, and despite initial reluctance from the major powers, it soon became standard practice in passports for travellers wishing to visit the Jamahiriya.

US breakfast TV told ‘relations will improve’

THE UNITED States is softening its hostility towards the Jama- hiriya, the Libyan leader suggested in a live satellite link-up with the “Today’ show on America’s NBC network in early January. ‘I think the situation now is not very bad like it was, and I hope it will be improv- ing in the future,” Muammer Qadhafi told breakfast television viewers.

‘We always exert ourselves the utmost to improve our relations with the United States of America, but America, Reagan in particular, refuses to improve this relationship for the benefit of our two peoples,’ he pointed out.

The Libyan leader’s live appear- ance provided an opportunity for Qadhafi to overcome what he described as Zionist influence in the American media. ‘America is com- pletely under the influence of Zionism, and Zionism will destroy the interests of the American people. All of us are victims of Zionism . .. Americans, Jews and Arabs,’ he warned.

Questioned about Libya’s arms purchases from the Soviet Union, he denied reports that the Jama- hiriya spends $2 billion a year on weapons. ‘No, it is not true,’ he said. ‘We buy very few weapons. It is part

Leptis Magna joins list of World Heritage

of the Zionist propaganda against us to defame our reputation.’

He said Libya needed to buy weapons, not to supply to revo- lutionary or terrorist groups abroad, but because Libya plans to arm its people. ‘If we have a million or two millions citizens, they will be armed to defend their independence and their territory. We buy tanks and artillery and aircraft for our people to defend themselves. It is impossible to give such weapons to guerrillas or terrorist groups,’ he explained.

However, Libya would continue to support the legitimate liberation struggles such as those of the Pales- tinian and Namibian people, he added.

Unique examples amongst | archaeological discoveries

THE DEPARTMENT of Anti- quities in Tripoli has announced the discovery of archaeological sites in the Silin region, 10 km west of the town of Khums. The sites, described as ‘highly important’, include a villa of 1,900 square metres dating to the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. The villa, which is one of the largest of its kind of this period so far found, contains an important group of rare mosaics depicting geometric designs and some mural paintings.

The Department says international archaeologists have confirmed that the mosaic designs are a school in their own right, and are more developed than the Alexandria and other ancient schools. The murals are considered a unique example of the period and are similar in their human depictions to the style of ‘round heads’ used on a wide scale

between 3000 and 9000 BC in south-west Libya’s Acacus and Matkhanoush mountains.

Meanwhile, it is reported that the UNESCO World Heritage Commit- tee has decided to include the three Libyan cities of Shahat, Sebratha and Greater Libda (Leptis Magna) on the List of World Heritage. The Archaeology Department in Tripoli has said the Jamahiriya will exert concerted efforts in future con- ferences to enter the rest of the country’s archaeological sites on the World Heritage List.

Libya's concern for the disabled ‘sets example’

THE NATIONAL Association of Disabled Writers in Britain and the Secretary-General of the Inter- national Rehabilitation Organisation (IRO) have both expressed praise for the pioneering role which Libya has taken in caring for the country’s citizens.

The latest Newsletter of the National Association of Disabled Writers in Britain criticises cut- backs in spending on health services in the United Kingdom, and argues that the Westminster government ‘could do worse than learn from our Libyan brothers, who, thanks to Colonel Qadhafi, have spend millions of pounds to ensure that Libya’s disabled have the very best care and most modern facilities that money can buy’.

‘Very few countries in the world have provided for their disabled to the extent that Libya has done,’ the article says. “Most countries either ignore their disabled completely or rely on charities to provide their essential needs. In contrast, Libya has fully recognised her duty towards her less fortunate citizens, and as a

matter of priority has done the very best for them.’

Similar recognition of Libya’s activities in this field was voiced by the IRO Secretary General who arrived in Tripoli on 22nd January. Praising the role played in the Jama- hiriya in proposing that 1981 should be designated UN International Year of the Disabled, he said: ‘The world salutes the Jamahiriya for this noble initiative and its humani- tarian action for realising the happi- ness of the disabled.’

A recent survey of facilities for the disabled in Libya, published in Jamahiriya Review, showed that in Tripoli and Benghazi alone the Health Secretariat had invested over $102million on rehabilitation and vocational training centres.

In January, the Libyan leader Muammer Qadhafi urged the Basic People’s Congresses to support measures aimed at expanding employment for the disabled.

Support for Sri Lanka's welfare programme

LIBYA IS providing support for Sri Lanka’s health programme and forging links with the island’s Muslim community. In early Janu- ary, a Libyan medical team, in- cluding doctors, held talks with Sri Lanka’s Minister of Communications and Religious Affairs. JANA said their presence was part of a pro- gramme of medical assistance being provided to the country. The agency reported that the team had also visited the Maldives to offer medical assistance.

One week later, the Sri Lankan minister held talks with the Secre- tary General of the Tripoli-based International Council of the Islamic Call, Dr Mohamed Ahmad al


Sharif. As well as being briefed on the situation of Sri Lanka’s Muslim community, Dr Sharif also visited the Muslim Orphanage in Colombo.

Cultural Festival in Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR was the venue of a Libyan Cultural Festival which opened in the Malaysian capita! on 18th January, offering a wide pro- gramme of cultural events portraying the heritage and acheivements of the Jamahiriya.

The internationally acclaimed feature film of the life and struggle of the Libyan resistance fighter Omar Mukhtar was shown throughout the week, while on stage at the National University the Libyan Arab Folk- lore Troupe presented performances of their award winning programme of traditional Libyan folklore dances and music.

Other features of the Cultural Festival included a seminar, attended by members of Tripoli’s Al Fateh University and the National Uni- versity of Kuala Lumpar, and a book exhibition.

Events were also staged in six Malaysian provinces.

israel sees Zaire as ‘open door to Africa’

THE IMPLICATIONS of the January visit to Zaire by the Israeli Defence Minister Ariel Sharon are being viewed with a degree of concern in Africa which goes far beyond the OAU’s anger that Zaire should have broken ranks and restored diplomatic links with the Zionist state, writes Louis Eaks.

Israel’s renewed involvement in African affairs, and the relation- ship with Zaire, reflects a new strategy in the United States. There are signs that both the Libyan Jama- hiriya and Angola may become targets of Zionist ‘advisors’ in Africa.

Zaire announced plans to resume its links with Israel, broken in 1974, after the Reagan administration faced increasing opposition in Con- gress to continued US aid to a regime which has been widely and repeatedly condemned for its cor- ruption and poor human rights record. To avoid further congress- ional blocks on military and eco- nomic support for the beleaguered Mobuto regime, Washington has switched its tactics, and will now channel support for Zaire through Israel.

In fact, Mobuto’s survival so far is due in part to an earlier Sharon visit in 1981, when Israel agreed to heip set up a presidential guard with Israeli advisers. A report on Israel radio on 21st January disclosed that


Libyan Arab Folklore Troupe take Libyan culture to the world.

the Zionist officers ‘acted not only as superior officers giving orders, but became part of the Zairean units’,

Sharon was accompanied on his five day visit by a 90-strong entourage, including two generals. The result was a military co- Operation agreement, signed by Israel and Zaire. The agreement, according to Israel radio, was based ‘on a strategic survey compiled by the (Israeli) Defence Minister’s National Security Adviser, Maj- Gen Avraham Tamir’. The immedi- ate benefit to Mobtto will be a re- organisation of his army, and the presence of Israeli advisers to defend his regime from revolution- ary uprising, which Mobuto fears is imminent. However, the Zionist role will be a much wider one. This is a view shared by several African states and western observers.

Richard Hall, Africa corres- pondent of the Lonrho owned Observer newspaper in London warned on 23rd January: ‘The Israeli-run force will create new tensions in the region.’ He added that ‘the far-reaching agreements which they have reached have electrified southern Africa’. Hall reminded readers, ‘The close military liaison between Israel and South Africa is no secret.’

President Eduardo dos Santos’ of Angola has reason to be concerned by the Zionists’ return to Africa. Hundreds of Israeli experts will be returning to Zaire, according to Richard Hall, who recalls earlier

support given by Israel to the Zaire based guerrilla forces of Holden Roberto. brother-in-law of Mobuto. Israel radio has confirmed that Sharon and Mobuto discussed Israel’s help in setting up ‘Nahal footholds’ which it said were ‘planned for Zaire’s long south- eastern border’ adjoining Angola. Nahal settlements is the term given to para-military establishments in occupied Palestine. Under the guise of agricultural projects, they are an integral part of Israel’s military system.

Increased Israeli support is pre- dicted for the UNITA forces of Jonas Savimbi, which are currently staging guerrilla and sabotage raids into Angola. Hall believes these raids have been masterminded by South African intelligence, trained in Israeli techniques. Angola believes the Israelis are already directly involved.

In addition, the prospects of direct Israeli involvement in a de- Stabilisation campaign against the Libyan Jamahiriya are now much greater as a consequence of Sharon’s visit to Zaire. ‘Reliable sources’ have been quoted by Agence France Presse as revealing that the Israeli Defence Minister also held talks in Kinshasa with government repre- sentatives from Chad. The newly installed regime of Hissene Habre is facing strong opposition from Goukouni Oueddei and_ other Chadians. An Israeli presence in Chad, with the same mandate as in

Zaire, would help to strengthen and protect the fragile Habre regime.

At the same time it gives Israeli military personnel direct access to the Jamahiriya’s southern border, and could provide a base for future Zionist attacks on Libya.

Sharon’s aides refused to confirm or deny that a meeting with a Chadian envoy had taken place, but told AFP that in Israel’s view Zaire is ‘an open door to Africh’.

international symposium on Green Book

FOLLOWING LAST December’s international seminar in Ghana on Muammer Qadhafi’s Green Book, preparations are now taking place in the Libyan capital for a further international symposium which will be staged in the Jamahiriya from 7- I5th April. The event is being organised by the International Green Book Research Institute in Tripoli.

The Green Book was written by the Libyan leader to explain the principles of the Third Universal! Theory, which guide the Al Fateh Revolution. In three parts, it deals with political, economic and social problems facing the world. It charts a solution which proposes an alter- native system to capitalism and communism.


Policies are discussed and decided at the General People’s Congress

Economic issues dominate Tripoli Congress

FROM ACROSS the vast territory of the Jamahiriya, members of the General People’s Congress arrived in the Libyan capital for the 1983 session which opened in Tripoli on 12th February. As the city basked in the Spring sunshine, there was an air of excitement as the Congress began its 8th session since the estab- lishment of the Jamahiriya at the Sebha Congress in March 1977.

The People’s Hall was quickly filled with Congress members, who were able to enjoy the facilities of the recently re- furbished conference centre. Many western political forums would envy the facility in each seat which provides a microphone, earphones for simultaneous translation, and a pull-out working surface on which to write notes or rest Congress papers.

The Congress comprises generally two members from each of the Basic People’s Congresses in the Jamahiriya (normally the Secretary and Assistant-Secretary), along with the Secretaries of the various vocational, labour and social organisations, members of the General People’s Com- mittee and the various Secretaries (the position in~the Jamahiriya’s political system which replaced the _ traditional post of Minister). Also present in the gallery were Secretaries from the Jama- hiriya’s Bureaux around the world, and

WITH A deepening world economic recession and uncertainty in international oil markets, Libya’s General People’s Congress has been

meeting to decide the political, economic and

social priorities for the year. Louis Eaks was in Tripoli

for the Congress and provides this report

foreign diplomats, press and_ repre- sentatives from foreign countries and liberation movements.

It was not necessary for Libyans to travel to Tripoli or visit the People’s Hall to follow the deliberations of the Congress. Throughout the Jamahiriya families were able to follow the sessions on television and radio, thanks to the live transmissions provided by the Jamahiriya’s broadcast- ing service.

In an opening speech the Secretary of the General People’s Congress referred to the high turn-out which had character- ised this year’s meetings of the Basic

People’s Congresses, which had spent four weeks in deliberations to determine the social, economic and political strategy of the Jamahiriya. The BPCs, he pointed out, highlighted the ‘exercise of direct democracy’ which is at the heart of the

Jamahiri system.

He paid tribute to Muammer Qadhafi’s leadership in establishing Libya’s demo- cracy. ‘The massive attendance at the Basic People’s Congresses’ positive and constructive meetings reveals the Libyan people’s belief in the people’s authority. and the Leader’s ideology in words and practice.’ he declared.

However, once the Congress got under- way. it turned its attention to economic issues which dominated _ discussion throughout the week. The Congress was meeting against the background of the continuing world economic recession and uncertainty in the international oil market, and Libyans were reminded that develop- ment strategy and the Jamahiriya’s economic policy had to be decided with these issues in mind.

Budgets cut

In particular, Congress reviewed the progress during the past two years, and plans for 1983, as Libya enters the third year of the current 1981-85 five year Transformation Plan.

The Secretary of the GPC told the meeting that the rate of development in 1981 had been 9.2 per cent, with new development contracts totalling 5,000 million dinars. And he warned, ‘1982 witnessed continued international eco- nomic developments and a deterioration in the oil market, characterised by a continued fall in demand and pressure on prices which led to a reduction in the sales and prices set by OPEC.’ Libya, he said, ‘suffered a reduction in prices of no less than 15 per cent coupled with a considerable reduction in ;the volume of exports. despite an attempt to protect the official prices fof oil].’

Because of this, the Secretary confirm- ed, the 1982 transformation budget at 2.600 million dinars was 13 per cent lower than for 1981.

He continued, ‘Despite difficulties in the financial year 1982, we succeeded in realising an investment volume which can be termed normal, and realised rates of development in the production § sectors which are nearer to our objectives.’

Disclosing the percentage rates of development for the various sectors, the Secretary referred to a 6.6 rate in agri- culture, forestry and fish processing, 21.4 in industries, 16.1 in electricity, 11.9 in public services excluding edu- cation and health, 10.1 in health, 7 in education.

However, he went on to warn that budget levels had to be realistic and reflect the broader economic situation in the world. ‘The recent developments in the oil market and the continued world eco- nomic recession throughout 1983 means that the original figure proposed for


Facing the American t

AS THE world awoke to news of fresh American military schemes against Libya, in Tripoli Muammer Qadhafi arrived to a rousing reception from the General People’s Congress on 17th February.

It was a sunny Thursday morning, and neither Qadhafi nor Libyan citizens out and about in the streets of the capital were showing any concern that President Reagan was once again warmongering in the region. AWACs had reportedly landed in Egypt, and the USS Nimitz was moving towards Libyan waters, but these were not Qadhafi's priorities when he appeared before Congress. His comments on the American President's interference in the Arab homeland lasted only a few minutes, and came towards the end of a two hour review of the Congress's debates.

Newsweek claims the Libyan leader ‘flashed hot and cold’, which hardly seems to be an accurate description of Qadhafi's traditionally relaxed style which nothing disturbed throughout his speech, delivered in a calm manner, his voice never raised.

When he did finally comment on the American threat on Libya's borders, it was in the context of the debates on mobilisation for military training in Libya. Despite Qadhafi's personal exhortation to mass mobilisation, the Basic People’s Congresses had shown reluctance to agree that this should include women. It was clear that the Libyan leader disapproved this sexual discrimination still prevailing amongst the male population. However. he told Congress, ‘No one can force the people's congresses to take any other decision.’

However, ‘the defence of the country is an unquestionable issue,’ he said. ‘You have to defend yourselves. That is imposed by the challenges that exist whether you like it or not. None of us has been the cause of it. All we are trying to do is live freely and work to unify the (Arab) nation. We do not seek to colonise America, and America should not colonise us.’

American intervention in the Gulf of Sirte meant American intervention in Libya, because the Gulf of Sirte ‘is an indivisible part of Libya’, he explained. The Libyan people would not allow America or any other country, not even

revenues will be hard to reach,’ he told Congress. ‘1983 begins with total con- tracts valued at 6,000 million dinars, and is characterised by low demand for oil and lower prices.’

Prudent trimming

Subsequently, the Planning Secretary addressed Congress to clarify the out- lines of the 1983 transformation budget.

\ US President Reagan

the Soviet Union with whom they have fnendly relations, to enter the Gulf of Sirte.

Opening his speech, Qadhafi praised the level of debate in the Congress andthe high attendance at the previous Basic People’s Congresses. ‘The signs ths year indicate the successful aaomplishment of the _ enterprise rather than otherwise,’ he said. ‘Next year will prove still better and so on. Itis important for the masses to adhere to the powers they have acquired and usethem wisely. ' ;

Itwas time, he went on, to provide pupose built halls for the BPCs, ‘respectable halls equipped with all the technical facilities to enable members to discuss their matters in a pleasant atmosphere’, rather than in schools, clubs or the open air.

He also proposed that the BPCs and the GPC should form specialist committees, a kind of watch-dog committee to question members of the easting people's committees which look after the various sectors such as education, housing and utilities.

The Jamahiriya wanted to move to- wards a system of ‘comprehensive self- management’, Qadhafi said, but BPC proposals for the administrative budget ‘did not adhere to any scientific cnterion’ and were at best ‘haphazard estimates’. The BPCs, he _ added,

He said that on a time factor basis, the budget covers 60 per cent of the plan’s total time span. This meant that a large part of the projects currently being imple- mented would be realised during 1983. ‘Moreover,’ he continued, ‘a consider- able proportion of projects that started during the current 1981-82 plan will be completed with basic projects such as iron and steel.’



‘ought to rely on scientific methods and be prepared to use computers’. Turning to the world economic crisis, he spoke of the high levels of un- employment in the _ industrialised countries, and warned that Libya had tobe more self-reliant and less depen- dent on a foreign labour force. The western industrialised countries, and the the socialist states were able to con-

front the economic crisis because they

were ‘highly disciplined _ societies’ while ‘the developing countries lack this discipline’, he warned. ‘If this year we have been able to reach a high level of awarnesss and discipline, we wil be successful in our economic measures,’ he added.

IfLibyans were prepared to embark on collective work in.vital services such as cleaning streets, cities and edu- cational institutions, said Qadhafi, then the foreign labour force would be cut to the benefit of the economy. He dso questioned ‘trivial posts carry- ing high salaries’ which he described as ‘unproductive and beyond account- ability and discipline’. There should be a review of such posts, as well as a check on employees who leave their offices or work place during working hours. Revolutionary and traffic com- mittees should carry out spot checks, he proposed.